Trees and yards

Report damage and request trimming for city-owned trees, learn more about ash tree replacement, tree care tips, and yard maintenance standards.

Trees on public property (including parks, green spaces, trails and alongside roadways) are the city's responsibility to protect and maintain. We have a public tree bylaw that protects them from being cut down or harmed.

We're working to update our urban forestry guidelines and will publish them here when available.

Public tree services

Report tree damage

If a tree has been damaged by storm and poses an obstacle or risk to public safety, report it during business hours at 519-886-2310 or after hours at 519-579-9557.

If you believe someone is intentionally harming a city tree, report it to our bylaw green spaces during business hours at 519-747-8785, or after hours at 519-570-9770 (ask for dispatch).

Request tree trimming or pruning

To request routine maintenance such as trimming, pruning, or disease/pest diagnosis, contact us during business hours at 519-886-2310.

Pruning is done by certified arborists, who work to achieve our clearance standards:

  • the lowest branch over public sidewalks no less than three metres (eight feet)
  • the lowest branch over a roadway no less than four metres (14 feet)
  • trails and walkways must have about three metres (10 feet) of vertical clearance and 30 centimetres (one foot) beyond each edge of the trail

Request new tree

Each year we plant around 1,200 trees. Call 519-886-2310 to request a tree on public property.

Ash tree replacement

Emerald ash borer is a non-native insect that feeds under the bark of ash trees, disrupting the the circulation of water and nutrients. Infested trees usually take up to five years to die. The insect was first found in Waterloo in 2011. We're committed to maintaining ash trees where possible and following a sustainable plan for tree management and removal.

Ash tree inspection, marking and removal

We inspect ash trees on city property on an annual basis, maintaining them whenever possible and replanting as quickly as possible after removals. Based on tree health, form and location, injections with TreeAzin insecticide are sometimes used to prolong the life of ash trees.

Residents will be notified of tree removals and replantings close to their property. Trees to be removed are marked with two red dots.

If a city ash tree appears unhealthy and isn't marked, call us at 519-886-2310 and we will inspect it.

Ash trees on private property

If you have ash trees on your property, there are some options to prolong their life span:

  • monitor them closely for signs of decline, such as loss of leaves/dead branches in upper areas, thin crowns, bark splitting or exit holes
  • do not plant new ash trees, and remember that infected trees die quickly and become hazardous
  • insecticide injection may prolong the life of your tree long enough to wait for new treatment options
  • chemical treatment is most effective between June and August
  • tree removal is expensive, but may be necessary based on health of the ash tree. It is important to weigh your options and seek advice on the effectiveness of chemical treatments versus removal.  

Pest removal

We do not spray for insects because of the provincial pesticide ban. Visit the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs website for more information

We do not remove insect nests within three metres (10 feet) of the ground unless they pose a safety issue. Bees, wasps and hornets generally do not cause a threat to human safety and play important roles in our environment as pollinators, predators, scavengers and prey.

Gypsy moths

Gypsy moth populations generally peak and become noticeable every 7 to 10 years. There is a high volume of gypsy moths this year. Currently, gypsy moths are in the egg stage and these can be found in crevices in the bark of trees. In late April to early May the caterpillars, emerge from the egg sacs. This destructive stage can defoliate an entire tree, in extreme cases.

The city is actively removing gypsy moth egg masses on city-owned trees where they are shown to be a problem. We encourage residents to remove gypsy moth egg masses from their personal trees.

The best way to contain their spread is to:

  1. Use a flat object such as a butter knife or a paint scraper, remove the egg masses from the tree.
  2. Collect the egg masses in the container when scraping the egg mass and ensure there is little to no egg residual on the tree bark.
  3. Fill the container of egg mass with some soapy water and let sit for a day or two, drain water and then put in the garbage.

It is important that you pick up egg masses at the base of the tree when scraping masses off.

If the caterpillars have emerged, wrap burlap around the tree trunk a couple of feet above the ground. The caterpillars will come down to the burlap at ground level during the day when it is hot and the burlap will contain them. You will need to monitor the burlap and dispose of the caterpillars.

The gypsy moth has several native predators that prey on the eggs and caterpillars. These include deer mice, birds, chipmunks, skunks, raccoon, parasitic wasps and flies. Thankfully, gypsy moth infestations are not a yearly occurrence and most healthy trees are able to bounce back even after significant defoliation.

Watch this video (2:31) on how to remove gypsy moths.

This joint effort between city owned and personal trees will reduce the spread of gypsy moths within Waterloo.

Taking care of public trees


Young trees need lots of water to grow. We provide a water bag for spring-planted first year trees. This bag can be topped up at any time. 

For subsequent years, a long slow soak is best so the water has time to move deep down into the soil and encourage deep rooting. Leave a hose to trickle slowly for at least 45 minutes or use about 20 gallons of water, poured slowly. Water about 2-3 feet from the base of the trunk a couple times a month or as needed during drought.

When watering trees or lawns, follow the Region of Waterloo's watering schedule. Water from rain barrels or watering cans any day.

To help keep soils moist we use organic mulch. Keep mulch and other materials away from the trunk to avoid disease, shallow rooting, and rodent damage.


During the first year, a tree is spending a lot of energy growing roots. It is suggested to avoid fertilizer during the first year, especially those high in nitrogen. In future years a slow release organic fertilizer such as bone meal is recommended.

Requirements for digging around trees 

Diagram of the protected root zoneIf you need to dig around a city tree's protected root zone (see diagram), follow these requirements:

  • all excavations using hand tools, air spades or trenchless techniques need to be carried out with great care to avoid damage to as many roots as possible
  • all roots over 25mm in diamter should be worked around and retained
  • any root cutting should be done with a sharp handsaw or secateurs (clean, straight cuts); size of the wound should be kept to a minimum 
  • mats of smaller roots (<25mm, including fibrous roots) should be retained
  • smaller roots can dry out and die when exposed, particularly in warm or windy conditions - they should be covered and protected with damp material until excavation is back filled
  • cutting of roots with a diameter > 25mm must be preapproved by the Manager of Forestry
  • when backfilling, do not tamp the soil too tightly, in order to allow oxygen and water to fill loose soil spaces
  • no more than 25 percent of the roots within the dripline for any tree should be cut or damaged
  • take extra precaution around sensitive and intermediate trees 

Use the following table to determine how sensitive a tree might be to root disturbance:

Species Tree Severance
American Elm Tolerant
Basswood Intermediate
Black walnut Sensitive
Bur Oak Tolerant
Butternut Sensitive
Green ash Tolerant
Hackberry Tolerant
Honeylocust Tolerant
Ironwood Sensitive
Mountain ash Tolerant
Red maple Tolerant
Red oak Tolerant
Silver maple Intermediate
Sugar maple Intermediate
White ash Tolerant
White oak Sensitive

If you have questions about how to proceed around a city tree, call us at 519-886-2310 for advice.

Yard maintenance standards

Lawn watering regulations and restrictions

Lawn watering is regulated by the Region of Waterloo's Water Conservation Bylaw. Visit their website to learn more about watering days, and to apply for exemptions.

Front yards

According to our lot maintenance bylaw, you must keep your front lawn free of "undesirable material" including:

  • refuse, rubbish, garbage, brush, waste, litter and debris
  • injurious insects, termites, rodents and other pests
  • growth of grass or weeds in excess of six inches
  • noxious weeds (see below)
  • branches or bushes which overhang the sidewalk or road
  • dead, decayed or damaged trees
  • unused or unlicensed motor vehicles or trailers
  • stagnant water
  • machinery or parts thereof
  • all furniture designed for indoor use

Call our enforcement team at 519-747-8785 during business hours if you're concerned about the front yard of a property in Waterloo.

Noxious weeds

To comply with our lot maintenance bylaw, you must keep your yard free of three types of noxious weeds:

  • Giant hogweed
  • Poison ivy
  • Ragweed

Be careful when removing these weeds. Visit the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs website for tips on identifying and getting rid of giant hogweed, poison ivy and ragweed.

Call our enforcement team at 519-747-8785 during business hours if you're concerned about noxious weeds growing on a property in Waterloo.

Invasive plants

Residents planting invasive species in private gardens are an increasing concern, especially where they grow close to public green spaces. The Grow Me Instead guide provides tips on growing species that are best suited to growing in our environment.

View some of the common invasive plant species found within the Grand River watershed. You can report sightings and observations of invasive species through EDDMapS Ontario.


Encroachment is the unauthorized use of public land for personal purposes, such as placing a shed, fence or other structure beyond your property line. This includes birdfeeders, play equipment, wood piles, pools, trailers, composters and gardens.

Our encroachment policy also regulates altering public land: you may not mow, prune or remove vegetation, plant trees or shrubs, or dump waste on public land.

Penalties for encroachment are up to $10,000. Our encroachment policy (PDF) sets out the process to remove encroachments and restore land at the expense of the person who encroached on it.


In Ontario you need a license to use pesticides on your lawn. Visit the Ministry of Environment's website for more information.